WHY CAN WE SEE BLACK HOLES?
Many people have asked me: "If black holes trap light, why do we see a ring of light in the photo of the black hole?". The answer is almost simple (making a few simplifications): the black hole is the black circle in the middle; the bright donut you see in the picture is not part of the black hole. Or rather, not yet. It is matter (mainly gas and cosmic dust) that is falling towards it. So, while matter falls into the black hole, it rotates very fast around it, forming a disc and emitting the light that we see as a ring. The brightest part of the disc is the one where the rotating material is directed towards us observers.
At a certain point, however, the matter gets too close to the black hole, overcoming the so-called Horizon of Events (in the photo it is the immaginary line between the light and the dark) and then it is lost forever.
The last very nice thing, however, is that if you notice the black hole is not perfectly circular: it is oval. This shape is not due to an optical effect, but it is due to the fact that in all probability that black hole rotates on itself like a huge, obscure top. ...
WHAT IS A BLACK HOLE?
Many people in this period, attracted by the "photo of the century" have asked us: but what is a black hole?
It is probably impossible to explain what a black hole is with a few simple words, because black holes are among the most mysterious objects in our universe and still not fully understood. But we can try... making a few simplifications.
A black hole is a very dense object, a very much dense object... an object with such a gravitational field that not even light can escape. Every body with mass generates a gravitational field... the sun attracts to itself all the planets of the solar system, the earth attracts all of us towards the ground, etc... this force is called gravity. It is clear that in order to escape gravity it is necessary to "escape" with a speed that allows us to do it. If, for example, we throw a stone upwards, it will fall to the ground... gravity wins. If we had the force necessary to throw a stone upwards giving it a speed of about 11,000 km/s (40,000 km/h) the stone would not fall to the ground, but it would be lost in space "defeating" the force of gravity on Earth. We can therefore say that the faster you run, the more chance we have of escaping the gravity of a body. Well, it is a fact (at least until today) that nothing can go faster than light. Light is the fastest thing going in the universe: 300 thousand km/s. So when a celestial body creates around itself a gravitational field so large that not even light can escape, it appears BLACK. Black because from him cannot come out light and consequently nothing can come out.
So far the matter seems simple, but then you could ask yourself: "Is that all? Why so much mystery around these mythical black holes?". To answer this question we must enter into the most fascinating, most mysterious and even most difficult part of the question. Because Einstein showed us that when gravity becomes so strong things become "strange"... or rather, strange compared to our common way of conceiving the universe: space deforms, time begins to slow down, and what seems science fiction is instead reality. ...
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