This photo shows cryogenic valve actuators (in blue) on top of a cold box. ❄️⠀
This is a new cold box that has just been installed in the superconducting magnet test hall at CERN. It’s not just a simple box as its name might suggest. CERN’s cold boxes are enormous machines, a bit like giant refrigerators. ⠀
This particular cold box is an essential component of the improvements being made to the infrastructure used to test the superconducting magnets and superconducting radiofrequency cavities. ...
📸 This photo shows a prototype for radiofrequency cavities used by the Large Electron–Positron collider (LEP). ⠀
The cavities are copper chambers that generate an electromagnetic field to accelerate the particles in the beams. These were used to accelerate electrons and positrons round the 27-km LEP, which ran at CERN from 1989 to 2000.⠀
Today, the cavities are no longer in use inside the ring. Some have found new life as material for training, experiment and display purposes. ...
A new study published in AGU's Journal of Geophysical Research : Oceans analyzing water temperatures, density and salinity in the Black Sea from 2005 to 2019 finds warming winter weather is warming the middle water layer of the Black Sea, known as the cold intermediate layer, which exists between the oxygen-free bottom layer of the sea and the oxygenated top layer of water. This warming is causing the cold intermediate layer to mix with the other two layers of water, according to the new research.
This intermediate layer has fluctuated in the past, but in the last 14 years its core temperature has warmed 0.7 degrees Celsius (1.26 degrees Fahrenheit). The blending of the cold intermediate layer with the other layers of water could enable the water masses from the deeper layers of the sea to eventually infiltrate the top layer, which would have unknown impacts on the sea's marine life.
The new study suggests climate change is causing the intermediate layer to warm and change, but natural fluctuations could also be playing a role, according to the study's authors. Studying changes in smaller water bodies like the Black Sea shows scientists how larger bodies of water might evolve in the future. The new study suggests what might happen to Earth's oceans as the climate continues to warm, according to the researchers.
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News source : www.sciencedaily.com
Date : 15 August 2019
Research : American Geophysical Union
Photo : pinterest.com/toura.eu
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